Flash Animation Hints

DRAWING TOOLS IN FLASH TUTORIAL

TIMELINE ANIMATION IN FLASH TUTORIAL

Vector vs. Bitmap Graphics.

Vector graphics-lines and curves.resolution independent.

Bitmap graphics-pixels arranged in grid. resolution specific.

Drawing Tools

Paths-anchor points, corner points, smooth points.

Merge Drawing and Object Drawing

MERGE DRAWING MODE: merges shapes that you draw when you overlap them. the top most shape cuts away the part of the shape below it that overlaps. The stroke and fill are independent objects.

OBJECT DRAWING MODE: creates objects that are separate. you can overlap the shapes without altering their appearance.  self contains shapes. the stroke and fill are not separate elements. when shape is selected, a rectangle box bounds it.

mergeobject copy

-draw straight lines with the primitive Line Tool

go to the MENU—-Window>Properties  (you can select  and alter attributes of choice in this window)

Draw with Shape Tools

-draw rectangles and ovals and basic geometrical shapes

using Merge object drawing for primitive shapes allows you to change the attributes in the property panel. You can modify the shape’s shape, fill, stroke joints, corners etc.

using Object drawing for primitive shapes doesn’t allow you to change the corners and other attributes in the property panel— instead it uses the last attributes chosen.

Tip: Shift drag while drawing with the oval  shape to constrain the shape to a circle.

Polystars, polygons, ovals, squares!

Draw with Pencil Tool

smoothing—-straightening—-inking

Paint with the Brush Tool

MENU–Window>Properties

pick fill and color…

The Brush mode Modifier selects painting modes:     Paint Normal-Paint Fills-Paint Behind-Paint Selection-Paint Inside

use the Variable Width Tool to embellish your strokes!

Linear and Radial Gradients can be applied and edited…Select an Object on the Stage.  Select Window>Color.  Select a color or gradient here.

Stacking Objects...Select object on stage…Select Modify>Arrange>Bring to the Front, or Send to the Back, (moves the object to the top or bottom of the group).  Select object…Select Modify Arrange>Bring Forward, or Send Backward, (moves the object 1 position forward or back in the stacking order).

Aligning Objects...Select objects to align… Select Window>Align

Grouping ObjectsSelect objects to group…Select Modify>Group

to Ungroup...Select object…Select Modify>Ungroup

Animation

Motion Tweenif you set properties for an object in one frame and again in another-you can then interpolate the property values of the in between frames.It creates continuous motion or transformation between the frames.

Classic Tween-similar to Motion Tween but can be tweaked more

Shape Tweens- changes the shapes or drawings between frames.  Interpolation morphs the shapes from one to the next.

Frame by Frame Animationdifferent art placed in each frame. Similar to traditional animation. Appears as if the frames are playing back like frames in a film.

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Tutorials/Instruction

Using Lights and cameras, points of interest in after effects
https://helpx.adobe.com/after-effects/using/cameras-lights-points-interest.html
animating with the puppet tool in after effects

https://helpx.adobe.com/after-effects/using/animating-puppet-tools.html

ANIMATING TEXT ON A PATH:

http://cgi.tutsplus.com/tutorials/animating-text-along-a-path-in-after-effects-ae-basix–ae-8636

I USED THE text on a path technique TO DO THIS OP-ART STYLE ANIMATION.  I created 1 layer and then COPIED, PASTED AND MIRRORED that layer many times.
SHATTER EFFECT:
THE WIGGLER :
1. PLACE 2 OR MORE POSITION KEYFRAMES ON THE LAYER YOU WANT TO WIGGLE
2. GO TO MENUS ON TOP OF SCREEN AND SELECT — WINDOW>THE WIGGLER
3. SELECT SPATIAL PATH FOR POSITION KEYFRAME WIGGLING. (TEMPORAL COULD BE USED FOR PROPERTIES LIKE OPACITY)
4. CHOOSE SMOOTH NOISE OR JAGGED.
5. ELECT ALL DIMENSIONS INDEPENDENTLY. FOR POSITION PROPERTY, THERE ARE X AND Y COMPONENTS.  IF YOU WANT TO WIGGLE BOTH X AND Y AXIS, CHOOSE X,Y.  YOU CAN ALSO CHOOSE TO DO X OR Y INDEPENDENTLY.
6. SET YOUR FREQUENCY. (THIS IS HOW MANY KEYFRAMES ARE SET PER SECOND. ) THE HIGHER THIS NUMBER, THE MORE CHAOTIC THE WIGGLE IS.
7. SET MAGNITUDE. (THIS IS HOW HIGH THE WIGGLE WILL WIGGLE)
8. CLICK APPLY.
BUILDING GIFS IN PHOTOSHOP CC:
-COLLECT, CREATE A GROUP OF IMAGES (DRAWINGS, PHOTOS, ORIGINAL ART, ETC.)  THAT YOU WISH TO ANIMATE.  PUT THEM ALL IN ONE FOLDER.
-OPEN A NEW PHOTOSHOP PROJECT. CLICK ON THE PULL DOWN MENU AT TOP OF THE SCREEN …FILE>SCRIPTS>LOAD FILES INTO STACK.  A “LOAD LAYERS” WINDOW WILL POP UP…. NOW CLICK  BROWSE TO OPEN YOUR IMAGE FILES. CLICK OK.  THIS WILL IMPORT YOUR FILES AS INDIVIDUAL LAYERS IN YOUR PHOTOSHOP PROJECT.  YOU CAN NOW ARRANGE THE LAYERS IN THE ORDER THAT YOU WANT THEM TO PLAY BY DRAGGING THEM UP AND DOWN IN THE LAYERS WINDOW.
-OPEN THE TIMELINE WINDOW.  WINDOW>TIMELINE.  YOU WILL NOW SEE A BUTTON IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SCREEN WITH A BUTTON THAT CONTAINS A DROP DOWN MENU.  HERE YOU CAN CHOOSE EITHER “CREATE VIDEO TIMELINE” OR “CREATE FRAME ANIMATION.”  CHOOSE AND THEN CLICK THE CREATE FRAME ANIMATION BUTTON.
-IN THE ANIMATION/TIMELINE MENU (TOP RIGHT CORNER PULLDOWN IN THIS WINDOW), SELECT MAKE FRAMES FROM LAYERS. THIS MAKES EACH LAYER IN YOUR DOCUMENT AN INDIVIDUAL FRAME IN THE ANIMATION TIMELINE.
-YOU  CAN NOW CHANGE THE DURATION OF THE FRAMES IN THE ANIMATION. GET INTO FRAME VIEW (NOT TIMELINE VIEW)
TIP*** IF YOU CAN’T SEE THUMBNAILS OF  YOUR LAYERS IN THE ANIMATION/TIMELINE, CLICK THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF THE WINDOW TO “CONVERT TO FRAME ANIMATION”
-SELECT ALL FRAMES IN THE ANIMATION. THERE IS A DROP DOWN MENU UNDER EACH FRAME.  YOU CAN PULL THIS DOWN TO SELECT THE DURATION OF EACH FRAME. IF ALL FRAMES ARE SELECTED THE DURATION WILL CHANGE FOR ALL OF THEM. IF YOU WANT EACH FRAME TO HAVE A DIFFERENT DURATION, YOU CAN INDIVIDUALLY SELECT THE FRAME AND ADJUST THE DURATION.
-THE OTHER DROP DOWN MENU IN THE BOTTOM LEFT HAND CORNER DETERMINES HOW MANY TIMES THE ANIMATION WILL LOOP.
-CLICK FILE>SAVE FOR WEB & DEVICES. CHOSE GIF FOR FILE FORMAT. SAVE.
LOOPING A COMPOSITON IN AFTER EFFECTS

—SET YOUR WORK AREA BEGINNING AND END POINT TO THE SECTION OF THE ORIGINAL COMPOSTION YOU WISH TO LOOP. THEN FROM THE MENU BAR, SELECT COMPOSITON >TRIM COMPOSTITON TO WORK AREA. —CREATE A NEW COMPOSITION BY DRAGGING THE ORIGINAL COMPOSTION INTO THE NEW COMP ICON IN THE BOTTOM LEFT CORNER OF THE PROJECT WINDOW. (THIS APPROACH WILL CREATE A NEW COMPOSITON THAT MATCHES THE SETTINGS OF YOUR ORIGINAL COMPOSITION) See example below:

(click to enlarge)

newcomp

—IN THE NEW COMP, GO TO THE MENU AND SELECT LAYER>TIME>ENABLE TIME REMAPPING (this will create 1 keyframe at the beginning of your comp and 1 at the end.) MOVE TO THE VERY LAST KEYFRAME IN YOUR NEW COMP. THEN GO BACK ONE FRAME AND CREATE A NEW KEYFRAME IN THE TIME REMAP LAYER.   NOW SELECT THE VERY LAST KEYFRAME AND DELETE IT. —SELECT THE TIME REMAPPING EFFECT FROM THE LAYER COMP PANEL TO ACTIVATE IT, AND FROM THE MENU BAR SELECT ANIMATION>ADD EXPRESSION —TIME REMAPPING WILL NOW HAVE AN EXPRESSION BOX IN THE COMP. CLICK ON THE EXPRESSIONS LANGUAGE MENU ICON IN THE COMP PANEL. AND SELECT Property>LoopOut(Type=”Cycle”, NumKeyframes=0) —NOW YOU CAN EXTEND THE LOOPING COMP by going into comp settings and changing the duration of your comp. Then –CLICKING AND DRAGGING your layer in the composition timeline to be LONGER. IT WILL LOOP OVER AND OVER AGAIN for the duration of the layer in the composition.

AUDIO AMPLITUDE EFFECTING LAYER PROPERTIES in After Effects

The below instructions were used to effect the yellow octagon object’s scale with audio amplitude. An expression was used to map the audio amplitude of a sound file to the scale of the octagon. You can use this technique on any layer and transform various properties of that layer.  Example: Scale, Opacity, Rotation, Position, Anchor Point.

1. File >project Settings (choose the audio sample rate setting that matches the         audio file you plan to import ex. 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz)

2. put audio file into composition

3. Animation>keyframe assistant>convert audio to keyframes

4. delete left and right channels in composition under audio amplitude- effects. twirl down both channels to expose slider property. (here you will see the keyframes created from the audio amplitude)

5. Menu>create new solid (mask —-or you can use any layer that you want to be affected by the audio amplitude)

6. select a property for example scale or position etc.

7. Animation>add expression

8. drag pick whip from expression to slider under the audio layer.

9.  Composition>preview>ram preview.

This was also created with the same technique:

 STOP MOTION ANIMATION TIPS:

-Test your camera, lights and props before starting the shoot

-Bring your SD cards

-Setting up the surface-Curved surface at the end of a table prevents harsh  shadows(us non reflective materials if possible)

-Canned air comes in handy

-Diffusion filters for lights are good. You can also use paper lanterns to light scenes.

-Use dynamic storytelling. Angles of Camera give more energy to the shot.

-Move the camera closer instead of zooming in.

-Use a tripod

-Be careful that you don’t change the focus on the camera once you have started shooting

-Don’t use auto focus or auto exposure

-Be careful not to disrupt the set or the subject matter’s position unintentionally

-Always try to shoot the entire scene in one session

-Don’t unintentionally change the lighting once you have begun shooting

-Be careful that you don’t change the exposure on the camera once you have started shooting

-Capture your material with the best look possible “in camera”. Don’t rely on post to fix color etc.

-Shoot at high resolution=jpegs 2496 x 1664, color space SRGB

-Don’t use auto white balance. Choose a white balance setting that matches the color temperature of the light you are using.

-Be careful not to bump the camera

-use nuances to create atmosphere so that characters don’t come to a halt (follow   through)

-shoot extra time at beginning and end of shots to use for editing

-shoot at 24 frames a second. decide the amount of seconds there should be in the action you are animating.  Take that desired amount of time and multiply it by 24. That is how many frames you should shoot. (example: to get 10 seconds of animation at 24fps you must shoot 240 frames.

-keep camera dope sheet to list each scene shot and amount of frames shot

-don’t wear reflective clothing.

-use a lower ISO (100 -400) with fast exposures. (use adequate lighting to achieve this)

PRactice!
TIMING, TIMING, TIMING
the closer the keyframes are together in time- the faster the motion of the object that is being animated.
Keyframe Interpolation
The Wonderful World of Shapes in After Effects
Using the Shape Tool to Create Masks
 EXAMPLES (YOUR PHOTOSHOP LAYERED FRAMES SPREAD OUT AS SEQUENCED LAYERS ON THE AE TIMELINE) EXERCISE #1.

I created a Photoshop project with many layers of this piano drawing. I then imported the .psd into After Effects and used the sequence layers technique show below to skew out the  pictures into frames.

a quick video below to show you how to sequence your photoshop layers in After Effects timeline. use this technique for exercise #1.

screen shot of step by step details:

layerstoAEseq

NOW TRY (IMPORTING THE SKELETON PROJECT INTO AFTER EFFECTS THEN PUTTING IT DOWN INTO THE TIMELINE WITH ALL ITS PARTS (LAYERS) SHOWING AT ONCE) EXERCISE #2

the import of the .psd is the same as the above demo. The only difference is when you put the layers down into the timeline.

deselect sequence layers in the pop up box.

Screen Shot 2014-09-19 at 9.53.45 AM Screen Shot 2014-09-19 at 9.53.32 AM

KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS CHEATSHEET

Screen Shot 2014-09-15 at 9.55.01 AM

 

walk cycles

Characteristics of a walk

-arms and torso work opposite of the legs and hips

-the body moves up and down- utilize the timing on this movement to suggest the weight or energy level of the subject matter.

-our center of mass must be over our base of support for balance. When we take off on one foot then another we shift or mass from side to side…

-weight shifts to one foot before lifting the other.

-the center of mass should be over the base of support

-there is a shape change after the contact pose. The body goes down when weight is put on the front leg. Then the leg is bent and forms a contrast between the stretch and squash of the shape. The hips get inversed and move on the supporting leg to keep the body in balance… the pose changes so we get a visual representation of the weight.

-the slower the sequence is the more shifts from side to side there needs to be.

-the further apart the feet are the more the weight shifts from side to side…

-a normal walk is at constant speed. Sneaks and other types of walk are not constant speed.

-the arms move forward and back and will slow in and out when they change directions—similar to a pendulum. The feet will ease in before snapping to the ground.

– study the movement through reference for poses and timing.

-during walking- at least one limb is in contact with the ground.

-bipedal motion- for support both feet hit the ground in walking

-during running- both feet are off the ground at some point (flight phase)

-notice the successive breaking of joints in your observations.

Test Yourself

1. place a drawing of a building on a the seaside landscape

2. put a mask the building to define its outer edges

3. put more masks on the building to make the windows transparent

4. apply effect to seaside landscape so that is appears to be moving

(you can double up layers if you wish)

5. add a tree to the landscape.

6. add apples to the tree

7. animate the apples so they fall off the tree

8. shine a sun light layer onto the scene and apply keyframes on the light to simulate sunrise to sunset.

9. use the puppet tool to animate a snake.

10.  export as a quicktime to drive.

creating storyboards

Screen Shot 2015-10-28 at 9.55.46 AM

STORYBOARDS

---storyboards help you plan ahead.  
---you can visualize your shots with a storyboard. 
---storyboards are useful for testing how your shots work together. 
---you don't need to be great at drawing to create an effective storyboard 
---you can use simple figures to convey your idea if you want.  
---storyboards should help you think about how you are going to frame the 
   subjects/characters in your animation.  


SHOTS AND SCENES

---illustrate the point of view that the audience will be looking at 
   through the entire animation.
---anytime you are looking at something from a new point of view,
   create a new scene.
---good shot selection is important to think about. plan your shot 
   selection carefully in order to make your animation interesting 
   and exciting. 

FIELD OF VISION-the entire area that a person or animal 
      is able to see when their eyes are fixed in one position.
ACTION AND CUT-the start and finish of a scene or shot.
CAMERA ANGLES 
-placement of the camera relative to the subject. 
-think of yourself holding the camera. 
-where are you in comparison to the subject? are you close or far? 
 are you  looking down on the subject,
 straight on or looking up at it?

LONG SHOT -includes the entire body of the subject(S) or character(s)

MEDIUM SHOT 
-subject is shown from above the knees or above the waist and up. 
-be careful where you cut this shot off in the frame since it may look 
 awkward if you cut off the knees or part of the arm. 
-cutting just above or below the joint usually looks more natural.

CLOSEUP 
-we most often see emotional content in the scene during a closeup. 
-we see the character's/subjects countenance here and it can be 
 used to depict their state of mind. 
-usually framed from the chest up. 
-they can also be framed from forehead to chin. 
-or can involve only the subject's eyes (Extreme Closeup) 

EXTREME CLOSEUP 
-sometimes used to add drama. -very tight focus 
-used sparingly usually 
-adds oomph to the scene. 

MASTER SHOT
-A long take of an entire scene.

POV
-point of view lets the audience see what is going on through the eyes of 
  the character in the animation. 
-you can portray this by showing what the character is looking at and then   cut to what they are looking at using and angle that is the same as if 
  the lens was shooting from the characters eyes. 
- usually used sparingly.

PAN-TILT -sideways or up/down rotation of the cmera on a tripod of pivotal point. -a way to put the camera on another subject without cutting to a new shot. -can be used to follow character around while they are moving in the frame. -this can be depicted in a storyboard by drawing a couple of frames to show where the camera starts and a couple to show where it ends. then add arrows to describe the direction and movement of the camera. TRACK -a tracking shot follows the subject with the camera. -it can involve moving the camera with tracks or on a dolly. or it can be done handheld. ZOOM movement of the camera
lens zoom in -adjusting the lens to frame in closer on the subject. zoom out-adjusting the lens to take in more of the scene. REVEAL -a character moves in and out of the frame during a show but the camera doesn't move.
180 degree rule
-not crossing the line of action.
-imagine scene being looked at from above with a straight line 
  drawn through the center of the subjects.
-keep your camera on the same side of this line throughout the scene.
-helps the viewers stay oriented.

Animation links

Screen Shot 2014-09-07 at 10.56.25 AM

Osamu Tezuka

Black Jack Manga

Astro Boy

Hayao Miyazaki

Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind – Official Trailer (1984)

 Princess Mononoke (1997)

Spirited Away(2001)

was the first anime film to win an American Academy  Award

Aleksandr Petrov

The Old Man and the Sea, (1999)

first animated film to be released in IMAX.

 READINGS:

http://www.wired.com/2015/07/oculus-story-studio-making-henry/

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/22/facebook-oculus-rift-acquisition-virtual-reality

 

Origins of Animation

Class 1- Intro to Computer Animation
 HOFSTRA SYLLABUSScreen Shot 2014-09-04 at 2.37.29 PM

Origins of Animation

Early Cinema Experiments

Thaumatrope

Zoetrope

Praxinoscope France (1877, Charles-Émile Reynaud)

Eadweard Muybridge

The Magic Lantern, (Kirchar, 1645)

Fantasmagorie, (Gaspard Robertson, 1831)

Fantasmagorie, (Emile Cohl, 1908)

Gertie the Dinosaur, (Windsor McCay , 1914)

SCREENINGS: Georges Méliès, A Trip to the Moon (1902) excerpt at 6:14
J Stuart Blackton, Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906)
Harry Smith, Interwoven 

Eadweard Muybridge click picture below for more examples of Muybridge’s early animal locomotion
Screen Shot 2014-09-03 at 9.22.45 AM
Wladyslaw Starewicz, The Cameraman’s Revenge (1912) Part 1 of 2
Part 2 of 2
READING:  

TU